Climate change is already having an impact 
on people, nature and the one shared home 
we all rely on. This must be the year world 
leaders put our planet first. 

In this report, we highlight 12 species that are experiencing 
the devastating impacts of climate change, and we outline 
how their future depends on humanity’s urgent response 
to the environmental crisis. Our list includes mammals, 
reptiles, amphibians, insects, birds, plants and corals – and 
it covers impacts across the globe, from here in the UK to 
the frozen wilderness of Antarctica and deep in the Amazon 
rainforest. 

Despite raised ambitions from political and business leaders 
to tackle climate change, the world is not on track to prevent 
catastrophic damage. Current climate pledges known as 
nationally determined contributions, or NDCs, and net-zero 
targets for 2050 will not deliver the Paris Agreement goal of 
limiting global warming to 1.5°C. In fact, they are projected 
to lead to a temperature rise of 2.4°C above pre-industrial 
levels by the end of the century. 

And there is hope. The UK’s presidency of the UN climate 
conference known as COP26, later this year, provides a 
unique opportunity for us to lead the way. We must act to 
ensure we can keep global temperature rise to 1.5°C and 
make nature our ‘climate hero’.

The world’s average surface temperature has risen by around 1°C since the Industrial Revolution. The impacts of this on people and nature are already measurable and will get a lot worse if we do not act urgently.


The impacts are felt everywhere – from tropical forests to remote mountaintops; from wetlands to the icy wilderness of the polar regions. We are experiencing more extreme events such as prolonged heatwaves and wildfires, warmer oceans and back-to-back coral bleaching events, retreating glaciers and rising sea levels.


Climate change has brought changes to all types of animal and plant life on every continent. Higher temperatures can shift the suitable range for species, disrupt the timing of their life cycle, and increase the frequency and intensity of extreme events that directly affect their natural habitats. These risks will all 
escalate as global temperatures rise.


Most species have evolved to survive in a particular environmental niche – and their historical distribution reflects this. Some may be able to adapt to higher heat and altered rainfall patterns. But others will need to shift their range to follow their preferred climates – typically moving to find more suitable cooler homes towards the poles and up hills. In the UK, the ranges of many species, including birds, butterflies, moths and dragonflies, have already shifted northwards over the last four decades. In the ocean, changing conditions have contributed to the range shifts of highly mobile species. A rapid shift in the distribution of the northeast Atlantic mackerel stock towards Greenland waters was seen earlier this century. But other species are unable to move because their habitat is too rare or fragmented, or too hard to reach because they face natural or human-made barriers.


In some parts of the world certain species may, at least temporarily, appear to do better – with more food available or as previously inhospitable areas become more suitable for colonisation. Threats to species are often complex, 
meaning different species, and even different populations of the same species, can display different responses. Shifts in temperature affect habitat and food availability dramatically for different species, including exerting a powerful influence over populations and distribution of Antarctica’s penguin species.
In west Antarctica, rapid warming has caused sea ice extent to decrease rapidly. As a result, populations of the ice-adapted Adélie penguin in this region are generally declining, whereas populations of the ice-averse gentoo penguin are increasing.


Increases in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events are putting wildlife under additional pressure, leading to high mortality and reproductive failures. For example, extreme heatwaves have caused massive die-offs in flying fox populations in Australia.

气候变化已经产生影响 关于人、自然和共享家园 我们都依赖。这一定是世界的一年 领导人将我们的星球放在首位。

在本报告中,我们重点介绍了正在经历的 12 个物种
气候变化的破坏性影响,我们概述
他们的未来如何取决于人类的紧急反应
对环境危机。我们的名单包括哺乳动物,
爬行动物、两栖动物、昆虫、鸟类、植物和珊瑚——以及
它涵盖了从英国这里到全球的影响
南极洲的冰冻荒野和亚马逊河深处雨林。

尽管政界和商界领袖雄心勃勃
为应对气候变化,世界并未走上预防之路
灾难性的破坏。当前的气候承诺被称为
国家自主贡献(NDC)和净零
2050 年的目标将无法实现《巴黎协定》的目标
将全球变暖限制在 1.5°C。事实上,它们是预计的
导致温度比工业化前高出 2.4°C
到本世纪末的水平。

还有希望。英国担任联合国气候主席国
今年晚些时候召开的名为 COP26 的会议提供了一个
为我们带路的独特机会。我们必须采取行动
确保我们能够将全球气温上升控制在 1.5°C 和
让大自然成为我们的“气候英雄”。

自工业革命以来,世界平均地表温度上升了约 1°C。这对人类和自然的影响已经是可以衡量的,如果我们不立即采取行动,将会变得更糟。


影响无处不在——从热带森林到偏远的山顶;从湿地到极地冰冷的荒野。我们正在经历更多极端事件,例如长时间的热浪和野火、变暖的海洋和连续的珊瑚白化事件、冰川退缩和海平面上升。


气候变化给各大洲所有类型的动植物生命带来了变化。较高的温度会改变物种的适宜范围,扰乱其生命周期的时间安排,并增加直接影响其自然栖息地的极端事件的频率和强度。这些风险都将
随着全球气温升高而升级。


大多数物种已经进化为在特定的环境利基中生存——它们的历史分布反映了这一点。有些人可能能够适应更高的热量和改变的降雨模式。但其他人将需要改变他们的范围以适应他们喜欢的气候——通常是为了寻找更合适的凉爽家园,靠近两极和上山。在英国,包括鸟类、蝴蝶、飞蛾和蜻蜓在内的许多物种的分布范围在过去四年中已经向北移动。在海洋中,不断变化的条件导致高度流动物种的范围变化。本世纪初,东北大西洋鲭鱼种群向格陵兰水域的分布迅速转变。但其他物种无法移动,因为它们的栖息地太稀有或支离破碎,或者因为面临自然或人为的障碍而难以到达。


在世界的某些地方,某些物种可能,至少是暂时的,表现得更好——有了更多的食物,或者以前不适宜居住的地区变得更适合殖民。对物种的威胁往往很复杂,
意思是不同的物种,甚至同一物种的不同种群,可以表现出不同的反应。温度变化显着影响不同物种的栖息地和食物供应,包括对南极企鹅物种的种群和分布产生强大影响。
在南极洲西部,快速变暖导致海冰范围迅速减少。结果,该地区适应冰的阿德利企鹅的数量普遍下降,而厌恶冰的巴布亚企鹅的数量正在增加。


极端天气事件的频率和强度的增加给野生动物带来了额外的压力,导致高死亡率和繁殖失败。例如,极端热浪已导致澳大利亚飞狐种群大量死亡。
Climate change can make existing habitats unsuitable 
and reduce the availability of natural resources such 
as water. When habitat and food become scarcer, wild 
animals may turn to livestock and crops, increasing the 
risk of conflict between people and wildlife.
Climate change is a threat to people and nature, and it 
exacerbates existing stresses. Many species cannot cope 
with the current rate of climate change, especially when 
their resilience has already been reduced by habitat 
destruction, overexploitation, disease, pollution and 
competition from invasive species. The UN estimates 
that one million species are threatened with extinction 
globally, many in the coming decades. 
We have now entered a sixth mass extinction, and 
climate change is accelerating the crisis. The Bramble 
Cay melomys was the first species of mammal wiped out 
because of human-caused climate change.
The small 
rat-like rodent, which was endemic to a tiny island at the 
northern tip of the Great Barrier Reef, saw its habitat 
destroyed by sea-level rise. More species will be pushed 
to the brink because of climate change.
气候变化会使现有的栖息地变得不适合并减少自然资源的可用性,例如作为水。当栖息地和食物变得稀缺时,野生动物可能会变成牲畜和农作物,从而增加人与野生动物发生冲突的风险。气候变化是对人类和自然的威胁,它加剧现有压力。许多物种无法应对以目前的气候变化速度,尤其是当栖息地已经降低了它们的复原力
破坏、过度开发、疾病、污染和来自入侵物种的竞争。联合国估计一百万个物种面临灭绝的威胁在全球范围内,许多将在未来几十年内出现。我们现在已经进入了第六次大灭绝,并且气候变化正在加速危机。荆棘
Cay melomys是第一个灭绝的哺乳动物因为人为造成的气候变化。
小的类似老鼠的啮齿类动物,它是地球上一个小岛上的特有物种大堡礁北端,看到了它的栖息地
被海平面上升摧毁。更多物种将被推送因气候变化而濒临崩溃。
The climate crisis is not simply about the disappearance 
of certain animals and plants from particular places, 
but about profound changes to ecosystems that provide 
vital services to hundreds of millions of people. Half of 
the world’s warm-water coral reefs have already been 
lost, with impacts on other marine life and coastal 
communities. Sea levels have risen by 16cm since the 
start of the 20th century, and the continuing trend 
threatens the existence of entire communities in coastal 
and low-lying areas. 
The increasing frequency and intensity of extreme events 
such as heatwaves, floods, droughts and wildfires driven 
by climate change is having a devastating effect on 
food security and livelihoods, with losses of crops and 
livestock production. Least developed countries are the 
worst affected.
With 2021 a critical year for climate action, world leaders 
must step up to deliver on ambitious targets that will 
put our planet on the path to recovery – protecting the 
health, wealth and security of future generations. These 
actions must be achieved without leaving anyone behind.
气候危机不仅仅是关于消失来自特定地方的某些动植物,但关于生态系统的深刻变化为数亿人提供重要服务。一半世界上的温水珊瑚礁已经消失,对其他海洋生物和沿海生物造成影响社区。自今年以来海平面上升了 16 厘米20世纪初,以及持续的趋势威胁沿海地区整个社区的存在和低洼地区。极端事件的频率和强度不断增加
例如热浪、洪水、干旱和野火驱动气候变化正在对粮食安全和生计,作物损失和畜牧生产。最不发达国家是
受影响最严重。
2021 年是气候行动的关键一年,世界各国领导人必须加紧实现雄心勃勃的目标让我们的星球走上复苏之路——保护地球子孙后代的健康、财富和安全。这些必须在不让任何人落后的情况下实现行动。
WHY DOES 1.5ºC MATTER?
Half a degree might sound insignificant, but the projected harm to unique and threatened systems increases enormously between a 1.5°C limit and higher temperature rises. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5°C highlights many differences in climate risks at 1.5°C, 2°C and higher levels of warming on land and in the oceans.


Risks from droughts and heavy precipitation events are projected to increase. Vulnerable communities who depend on agricultural or coastal livelihoods are likely to suffer impacts and increasingly face food insecurity. They will clearly benefit from a strict implementation of the Paris targets. For example, at 1.5°C, there will still be reductions in the yields of maize, rice, wheat and other cereal crops, but they are projected to be smaller than at 2°C, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, south-east Asia and Latin America.
半度可能听起来微不足道,但在 1.5°C 的限制和更高的温度升高之间,对独特和受威胁系统的预计危害会大大增加。 这政府间气候变化专门委员会 (IPCC) 关于全球升温 1.5°C 的特别报告强调了 1.5°C、2°C 和更高升温水平下气候风险的许多差异在陆地和海洋中。


预计干旱和强降水事件的风险将会增加。 依赖农业或沿海生计的弱势社区可能会受到影响并日益面临粮食不安全。 他们显然将从严格执行巴黎目标中受益。 例如,在 1.5°C 时,玉米的产量仍然会下降,稻、小麦和其他谷类作物,但预计低于 2°C,特别是在撒哈拉以南非洲、东南亚和拉丁美洲。
Low-lying and coastal communities are highly vulnerable to sea-level rise. Global sea-level rise by 2100 is projected to be 10cm higher at 2°C than if we keep to 1.5°C. Such a difference would expose up to 10 million more people to risks.


A half-degree increase would also permanently damage a variety of ecosystems and lead to the extinction of even more species across the globe. For example, warm-water coral reefs are projected to decline by a further 70-90% at 1.5°C warming but would be virtually lost under a 2°C scenario. If emissions keep rising as they are today, all known emperor penguin colonies will decline and most will be quasiextinct by the end of the century – but if we keep to 1.5°C their future can be secured. A global assessment analysed the potential effects of climate change on the range sizes of more than 105,000 terrestrial species.
It found that keeping temperature rise to 1.5°C rather than 2°C would halve the proportion of plants and vertebrates that are projected to lose more than 50% of their geographical range. Under the same scenario, the number of insects facing such range loss would decrease by two-thirds.Time is of the essence. To save humanity’s crucial life-support systems, the global community must act now. If we fail to limit global warming to 1.5°C, we will face even greater risks of a global decline of functioning ecosystems and an irreversible and catastrophic loss of species.
低洼和沿海社区极易受到海平面上升的影响。 到 2100 年,全球海平面上升预计在 2°C 时比保持在 1.5°C 时高 10 厘米。 这种差异将使多达 1000 万人面临风险。


半度的升高还将永久性地破坏各种生态系统,并导致全球更多物种的灭绝。 例如,温水珊瑚礁
预计在升温 1.5°C 时将进一步下降 70-90%,但在 2°C 情景下几乎会消失。 如果排放量像今天这样继续上升,所有已知的帝企鹅
到本世纪末,殖民地将会减少,大部分将几乎灭绝——但如果我们保持在 1.5°C,它们的未来就可以得到保障。
一项全球评估分析了气候变化对超过 105,000 种陆地物种分布范围的潜在影响。
研究发现,将温度上升保持在 1.5°C 而不是 2°C 将使预计将失去 50% 以上地理范围的植物和脊椎动物的比例减半。 在同样的情况下,面临这种射程损失的昆虫数量将减少三分之二。时间至关重要。 为了拯救人类至关重要的生命支持系统,全球
社区必须立即行动。 如果我们不能将全球变暖限制在 1.5°C,我们将面临更大的全球气温下降风险
正常运转的生态系统和不可逆转的灾难性物种损失。
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GLOBAL STATE OF PLAY
Greenhouse gas emissions from human activities are the dominant cause of the climate crisis. The main drivers are carbon dioxide from burning fossil fuels for energy (for example in industry, transport and to heat buildings) and from releasing carbon stored in vegetation and soils (for example through deforestation to clear land for agriculture). Agriculture also contributes large amounts of the greenhouse gases methane and nitrous oxide. 


To tackle climate change and its negative impacts, 196 countries (together with the EU) adopted the Paris Agreement on climate change in 2015. They agreed to pursue efforts to limit global temperature rises to 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels. All pathways to 1.5°C include rapid and deep cuts in greenhouse gas emissions, together with protecting and 
enhancing natural carbon sinks such as forests, soils and wetlands. 


However, despite political statements and 
action to date, the world is not on track to slow 
climate change. Short-term country climate 
pledges – known as nationally determined 
人类活动产生的温室气体排放是气候危机的主要原因。主要驱动因素是燃烧化石燃料产生的二氧化碳(例如在工业、运输和供暖建筑中)以及释放储存在植被和土壤中的碳(例如通过砍伐森林为农业开垦土地)。农业还产生大量温室气体甲烷和一氧化二氮。


为应对气候变化及其负面影响,196 个国家(连同欧盟)于 2015 年通过了关于气候变化的《巴黎协定》。他们同意努力将全球气温上升限制在工业化前水平之上 1.5°C。达到 1.5°C 的所有途径都包括快速和深度减少温室气体排放,以及保护和加强森林、土壤和湿地等自然碳汇。


然而,尽管有政治声明和迄今为止的行动,世界并未走上放缓的轨道气候变化。短期国家气候承诺——被称为国家决定
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1. ATLANTIC PUFFIN

Sometimes called the ‘clown of the sea’, the Atlantic puffin may not delight bird lovers for much longer if ocean temperatures continue to rise. They lead a solitary life at sea, feeding and travelling. They return to land for a few months per year to breed. The UK provides vital nesting habitat for them in the summer. 

Europe is home to over 90% of the Atlantic puffin population, but their numbers have been crashing in the last two decades.

Puffins face multiple threats. Overfishing has already severely reduced their food source. And since they are diving to catch fish, puffins are at risk of becoming entangled themselves in fishing gear.  

Now climate change is driving drastic declines in puffin and other seabird numbers. Global warming leads to more severe and frequent weather events, which affects the puffins that spend most of their time at sea. High winds and heavy rainfall affect the birds’ ability to dive and find food. During the breeding season, extreme weather chills the eggs while storms destroy nests with chicks.

All elements of the marine ecosystem are inter-connected, and rising sea surface temperatures disrupt the entire marine food web the birds rely on for their survival. Puffins eat a mix of small pelagic fish, such as herrings, sprats, capelins and sandeels. Sandeels eat tiny crustaceans called copepods that 
form dense swarms in certain places at specific times.Timing is everything, and sandeel larvae conveniently hatch close to the start of one such bloom in the spring. With plenty of food to eat, the baby sandeels can grow and become the meal of their top predators, puffins, who feed the nutritious fish to their growing chicks during nesting season. 


Warmer waters trigger this food chain to be out of sync. In what scientists call a ‘trophic mismatch’, copepods are blooming before sandeels hatch. This results in fewer sandeels for the puffins to feed their young, causing the failure of entire colonies. Between 2000 and 2016, the mismatch between sandeels and copepods was estimated to be 19.8 days, and this will increase with higher temperatures. If we want to keep puffins and other seabird species afloat, we need to act now and limit the rise in global temperatures.

2. MOUNTAIN HARE
WRONG COAT FOR THE CLIMATE

As the UK’s only true native hares, mountain hares living in the Highlands of Scotland have evolved a brilliant strategy to escape predators. In the summer, they display a brown pelage that blends in with the environment. In October, they moult and switch to a white coat that keeps them well camouflaged in 
the snow. Then in March, they moult again and revert back to their summer outfit. But the strategy is not working so well in a warming climate. Annual snow cover in the Scottish Highlands has declined by over 37 days on average between 1960 and 2016.

If mountain hares could adapt to the change by moulting later in the autumn and earlier in the spring they would better match the change in snow cover.So far, the evidence shows this hasn’t been happening, as climate change is occurring at a faster rate than the hares can adapt. They still keep their white coat on for roughly the same amount of time in the winter.

This means the hares’ camouflage is now mismatched to their environment for more than a month each year longer compared to 1960. During that time, they exhibit striking white fur against a snowless background, which leaves them more vulnerable to predators who can spot them more easily on the dark mountainside.

The mismatch is dangerous not just for hares in Scotland: it is a risk for many species that rely on seasonal changes in coat as an adaptation to avoid predators. In North America, a study showed that the weekly survival of snowshoe hares decreased by up to 14% when they were mismatched against their surroundings. Mountain hare numbers have also fallen in parts of Norway, linked to increased predation in areas with fewer snow days.

The climate change threat is not limited to a coat colour mismatch. Hares thrive in cold conditions. Warmer temperatures will push them to move higher, into smaller and more fragmented territories. Researchers who have been tracking hares in the Swiss Alps have found that their alpine habitat will reduce by around 35% by 2100. Warmer weather at a critical time of year will shrink the environment suitable for successful reproduction.

It is essential to limit further temperature increases to maintain suitable hare habitat and so that the animals get more time to develop a climateadapted wardrobe.

BLUEBELLS
SPRING BLOOM OUT OF SYNC 

With deep blue colours and an enchanting perfume, bluebell woods in full bloom are one of most magical experiences associated with springtime in the UK. But the sight may become rarer in the future. With a warming climate, the bluebells, along with other countryside plant species, may have a hard time. Under the projection of global temperatures rising to 2°C, large parts of southern and central England are likely to be become inhospitable for bluebells. 

A member of the lily family, the bluebell overwinters as a bulb and emerges in the spring to flower between mid-April and late May. Temperature controls plant development and flowering. In the spring and early summer, drought can reduce their growth. Warmer temperatures can impede germination and can shift timing of flowering to become out of sync with the seasons. A study based on 200,000 observations of seasonal cycles recorded by nature enthusiasts for the Woodland Trust revealed that the first leafing or flowering dates for bluebells and 21 other plant species across the UK were affected by warmer spring temperatures. For each 1°C temperature increase, the plants were leafing or flowering between three and eight days earlier than they used to.

Plants have an optimum time and conditions for developing leaves and flowers which give them the best chance to grow and reproduce. With warmer temperatures and drier conditions, their future may be compromised. Bluebells take advantage of the open canopy in early spring, growing and flowering before the canopy closes over as the leaves of beech, oak and other trees expand. If bluebells cannot time their growth and development to coincide with the changing seasons, they may lose out.

The native British bluebell is already under threat from pollution, the destruction of woodland habitat through urban development, and the invasion of the introduced Spanish bluebell varieties that are less colourful and fragrant than the native flowers, but more vigorous. If we do not limit the rise in global temperatures, climate change could make our beloved native bluebells only a countryside memory in parts of the UK.

大西洋海雀
 

有时被称为“海洋小丑”,如果海洋温度继续上升,大西洋海雀可能不会让鸟类爱好者高兴更长时间。他们在海上过着孤独的生活,觅食和旅行。他们每年返回陆地几个月进行繁殖。英国在夏季为它们提供了重要的筑巢栖息地。

欧洲拥有超过 90% 的大西洋海雀种群,但在过去的二十年里,它们的数量一直在急剧下降。

海雀面临多重威胁。过度捕捞已经严重减少了他们的食物来源。而且由于它们正在潜水捕鱼,海雀有被渔具缠住的风险

现在气候变化正在推动海雀和其他海鸟数量的急剧下降。全球变暖导致更严重和频繁的天气事件,这影响了大部分时间在海上度过的海雀。大风和强降雨会影响鸟类潜水和寻找食物的能力。在繁殖季节,极端天气会使鸡蛋变冷,而暴风雨会破坏小鸡的巢穴。

海洋生态系统的所有要素都是相互关联的不断上升的海面温度扰乱了鸟类赖以生存的整个海洋食物网。海雀吃各种小型中上层鱼类,如鲱鱼、鲱鱼、毛鳞鱼和沙鳗。 Sandeels吃称为桡足类的微小甲壳类动物在特定的时间在特定的地方形成密集的群体。时间就是一切,沙鳗幼虫在春季开花的时候很容易孵化。有了充足的食物可以吃,小沙鳗可以成长并成为它们的顶级掠食者海雀的食物,它们在筑巢季节将营养丰富的鱼喂给正在成长的小鸡。


温暖的海水会导致这条食物链失去同步。在科学家所说的“营养不匹配”中,桡足类在沙鳗孵化之前就已经开花了。这导致海雀喂养幼崽的沙鳗数量减少,导致整个殖民地的失败。在 2000 年到 2016 年之间,沙鳗和桡足类之间的不匹配估计为 19.8 天,并且随着温度的升高而增加。如果我们想让海雀和其他海鸟物种继续生存,我们需要立即采取行动,限制全球气温上升

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山兔
气候错误的外套

作为英国唯一真正的本土野兔,生活在苏格兰高地的山地野兔已经进化出一种出色的策略来逃避掠食者。在夏天,它们呈现出与环境融为一体的棕色毛皮。十月,它们换羽并换上一件白色外套,让它们在雪。然后在三月,他们再次蜕皮并恢复他们的夏季服装。但该策略在气候变暖的情况下效果不佳。从 1960 年到 2016 年,苏格兰高地的年积雪平均减少了 37 天以上。

如果山兔能够通过在秋季晚些时候和春季早些时候换羽来适应这种变化,它们将更好地适应积雪的变化。到目前为止,证据表明这还没有发生,因为气候变化正在以更快的速度发生速度超出了野兔的适应能力。在冬天,他们仍然穿着白色外套的时间大致相同。

这意味着与 1960 年相比,野兔的伪装现在与环境不匹配的时间比 1960 年增加了一个多月。在那段时间里,它们在无雪的背景下展现出引人注目的白色皮毛,这使它们更容易受到更容易发现它们的捕食者的攻击轻松地在黑暗的山腰上。

这种不匹配不仅对苏格兰的野兔来说是危险的:对于许多依靠外套的季节性变化来适应躲避捕食者的物种来说也是一种风险。在北美,一项研究表明,当雪鞋野兔与周围环境不匹配时,它们的每周存活率下降了 14%。挪威部分地区的山兔数量也有所下降,这与雪天较少地区的捕食活动增加有关。

气候变化威胁不仅限于毛色不匹配。野兔在寒冷的环境中茁壮成长。气温升高将推动它们向更高处移动,进入更小、更分散的地区。一直在瑞士阿尔卑斯山追踪野兔的研究人员发现,到 2100 年,它们的高山栖息地将减少约 35%。一年中关键时期的温暖天气将缩小适合成功繁殖的环境。

必须限制进一步的温度升高以维持合适的野兔栖息地,以便动物有更多时间来开发适应气候的衣橱。

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蓝铃
春天开花不同步

深蓝色和迷人的香水,盛开的风信子树林是英国春天最神奇的体验之一。但未来这种景象可能会变得更加罕见随着气候变暖,风信子以及其他乡村植物物种可能会遇到困难。在全球气温上升至 2°C 的预测下,英格兰南部和中部的大部分地区可能会变得不适合蓝铃花生长。

作为百合科的一员,风信子以球茎的形式越冬,并在春季出现,在 4 月中旬至 5 月下旬之间开花。温度控制植物的发育和开花。在春季和初夏,干旱会减少它们的生长。较高的温度会阻碍发芽,并可能改变开花时间,使其与季节不同步。一项基于自然爱好者为 Woodland Trust 记录的 200,000 次季节性周期观察的研究表明,第一次生叶或开花英国各地的风信子和其他 21 种植物物种的日期受到春季气温升高的影响。温度每升高 1°C,植物的生叶或开花时间就会比它们提前 3 到 8 天。习惯了。

植物有一个最佳的时间和条件来发育叶子和花朵,这给了它们最好的生长和繁殖机会。带保温杯温度和干燥条件,它们的未来可能会受到影响。风信子在早春利用开放的树冠,在树冠关闭之前随着山毛榉、橡树和其他树木的叶子扩张而生长和开花。如果风铃草的生长发育不能与季节变化同步,它们可能会败。

英国本土的风信子已经受到污染、城市发展对林地栖息地的破坏以及引进的西班牙风信子品种的入侵的威胁,这些品种的色彩和香味不如本土花卉,但更有活力。如果我们不限制全球气温的上升,气候变化可能会使我们心爱的本土风铃草成为英国部分地区的乡村记忆。

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BUMBLEBEE
TOO WARM FOR THE FUZZY POLLINATORS

Among the most important pollinators, bumblebees can generate heat while flying and their fuzzy bodies act as a warm coat. With these special adaptations, they thrive in cold climates. But they are susceptible to overheating and a 
warming world is pushing them to temperatures they cannot tolerate.

A recent study of over half a million observations of 66 bumblebee species around the world, going back for more than a century, shows where the insects used to live and where they are found today – with evidence of rapid and widespread declines. The researchers discovered that the chances of spotting a bumblebee in any given area in North America have dropped by almost half from 1901-1974 to 2000-2014 and by 17% in Europe on average. Their disappearance from a region means they have either moved elsewhere or died. Bumblebees have been hit the hardest in warmer places, including Mexico and Spain, where they cannot cope with increasing temperatures. But even in relatively cool regions such as the UK, bumblebees have also been declining.


While some bumblebees have responded to the hotter temperatures by colonising cooler, more northerly regions, this has not been enough to compensate for the losses. The extent of their range expansion is far smaller than the extent of range lost, which could push some bumblebee species towards extinction.


Approximately 250 species of bumblebees exist in the world, and climate change is not the only factor driving their widespread decline. Bumblebees face multiple threats to their existence, including the destruction of habitat due to intensive agriculture and land-use changes, the spread of diseases, the use of harmful pesticides such as neonicotinoids, and the release of non-native bees for commercial pollination. For example, great yellow bumblebees used to be found throughout the UK. In the last century their population has declined by 80% because of climate change, pesticides, the loss of flower-rich meadows and the intensification of farming. They are now restricted to the northern Highlands and the islands of Scotland.


Bumblebees pollinate many types of wild plants as well as agricultural crops such as tomatoes, aubergines and blueberries. The loss of the important ecosystem services they provide threatens food security and overall biodiversity. If we do not act now to limit global temperatures, climate change could be the final straw for some bumblebee species

熊蜂
对模糊传粉者来说太热了

在最重要的传粉媒介中,大黄蜂可以在飞行时产生热量,它们毛茸茸的身体就像一件温暖的外套。通过这些特殊的适应,它们在寒冷的气候中茁壮成长。但它们容易过热和变暖的世界正在将他们推向他们无法忍受的温度。

最近一项对全球 66 种大黄蜂超过 50 万次观测的研究可以追溯到一个多世纪前,该研究显示了这些昆虫过去生活的地方以及它们今天的发现地——有证据表明它们正在迅速而广泛地减少。研究人员发现,从 1901-1974 年到 2000-2014 年,在北美任何特定地区发现大黄蜂的机会几乎下降了一半,在欧洲平均下降了 17%。他们从一个地区消失意味着他们要么搬到别处,要么死去。大黄蜂在温暖的地方受到的打击最为严重,包括墨西哥
和西班牙,他们无法应对不断上升的气温。但即使在英国等相对凉爽的地区,大黄蜂也在减少。


虽然一些大黄蜂通过在较冷、更偏北的地区定居来应对较热的温度,但这还不足以弥补损失。它们范围扩大的程度远小于范围丧失的程度,这可能会使一些大黄蜂物种走向灭绝。


世界上大约有 250 种大黄蜂,气候变化并不是导致大黄蜂普遍衰退的唯一因素。大黄蜂的生存面临多重威胁,包括由于集约化农业和土地利用变化导致栖息地破坏、疾病传播、使用新烟碱类等有害杀虫剂,以及释放非本地蜜蜂进行商业授粉。例如,大黄蜂曾经是
遍布英国。在上个世纪,由于气候变化、杀虫剂、鲜花盛开的草地的丧失和农业集约化,他们的人口减少了 80%。它们现在仅限于北部高地和苏格兰群岛。


大黄蜂为多种野生植物以及西红柿、茄子和蓝莓等农作物授粉。它们提供的重要生态系统服务的丧失威胁到粮食安全和整体生物多样性。如果我们现在不采取行动限制全球气温,气候变化可能成为一些大黄蜂物种的最后一根稻草

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